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40 Dorfkinder Trinkspiel umsetzen. - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Die englische Kirche bewahrte sich im Mittelalter eine gewisse Distanz zu den Päpsten.
A England

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Albion is also applied to England in a more poetic capacity, [24] though its original meaning is the island of Britain as a whole.

The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor , dating to approximately , years ago.

By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze , and later iron from iron ores.

The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs , advancing agriculture for instance, with Celtic fields , as well as the production of more effective weapons.

Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy 's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area.

Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius , subsequently conquering much of Britain , and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.

Later, an uprising led by Boudica , Queen of the Iceni , ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street.

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier.

According to Bede , missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.

There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea , while others claim through Lucius of Britain.

This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology.

Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles , Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province.

These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the course of the fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern part of the country.

Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control.

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.

Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.

Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.

A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.

However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.

Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.

The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century [55] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.

During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.

In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.

Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship.

During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.

The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.

This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms.

The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.

It was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.

This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland.

The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.

After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.

This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.

In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [73] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.

In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.

After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [74] the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.

Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.

During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.

The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh.

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.

Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.

The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.

Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.

Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.

Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum , this has not been carried out.

One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [] and the United States except Louisiana.

Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.

The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.

It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.

London accepted in the London Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.

They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent.

Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.

The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.

In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October.

Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.

National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England.

They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations. NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust , and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

There are NNRs in England covering square kilometres square miles. Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals.

England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West.

Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas.

Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests mainly plantations which also benefit certain forms of wildlife.

The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures.

English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming , but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.

Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight.

England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [] and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

England is a leader in the chemical [] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.

The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.

It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology , is also part of Astrium.

England is one of the world's leading fishing nations. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine , the first industrial spinning machine , the first computer and the first modern computer , the World Wide Web along with HTML , the first successful human blood transfusion , the motorised vacuum cleaner , [] the lawn mower , the seat belt , the hovercraft , the electric motor , steam engines , and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory.

Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure.

There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [] much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally.

Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.

These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.

The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium.

The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary , one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.

Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2, TWh Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply. Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe.

UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions , whilst meeting energy demand.

Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs.

In , the United Kingdom was ranked 6th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index , [] which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall , is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs for a total of 73 miles in northern England.

London is one of the world's most visited cities, regularly taking the top five most visited cities in Europe. It is largely considered a global centre of the arts and culture.

Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries. National Health England NHS England is the publicly funded healthcare system responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.

When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fair value of the drugs, influences the global price, typically keeping prices lower.

The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.

England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.

English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [] but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [] [] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language or third language from the ages of seven, usually French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.

The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , there are selective intake grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Around 7. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years.

Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Some English students study an apprenticeship to learn skilled trades and pursue T-levels to progress towards skilled employment, further study or a higher apprenticeship.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.

Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.

Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden.

Gardening, visiting gardens, and a love for gardens are regarded as typically English pursuits. The English garden presented an idealized view of nature.

For several centuries the religion of England was Roman Catholicism. The bishops church leaders of England and all their churches obeyed the Pope and the church in Rome , Italy.

During the Protestant Reformation many did not agree with this. He made Protestantism the official church in England.

For the next years, there was struggle over whether the King or Queen of England should be "Roman Catholic" or "Protestant". Queen Elizabeth I was Henry's second daughter.

She was a powerful queen who ruled for more than 40 years. He called his two countries "Great Britain", but they were still separate countries with their own parliaments and laws, even though they were in personal union.

They shared the same monarch. When Cromwell died, his son Richard was not strong enough to rule, and Charles II , the son of Charles I, was invited to come to England and be king in A lot of people did not like James because he was Roman Catholic.

William of Orange was invited to invade England. Many people welcomed William because he was a Protestant. James left the country without a fight and Parliament asked William and Mary to become King and Queen together.

Queen Mary's sister Anne became the next queen. While she was queen, England and Scotland were officially joined as one country. This was called the Acts of Union It also merged their separate parliaments.

The result was the separation of the Republic of Ireland. This is not the whole island of Ireland. England is the only country of UK not to have its own government, Parliament or Assembly, but is governed by Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Seats in Parliament are decide by the number of electors in the various parts of the UK. England has been central to many aspects of the modern world.

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